AI can significantly reduce Malware development and distribution costs, giving cybercriminals an advantage over insufficiently secured targets. Read the article to see practical examples of AI code development capabilities and learn how AI impacts cyber risks for businesses.
A Good Thing: Malware Development is (still) Expensive
In terms of malware attacks, the biggest expense for cybercriminals is developing and maintaining the malicious code and infrastructure they will use (or sell) in their campaigns. Moreover, malware development combined is the lengthiest process in the entire cyber-attack chain.
Creating effective and dependable malware requires expertise in software engineering, a skill that is in high demand globally. Developing malware involves not just writing code but also researching potential vulnerabilities to exploit. Additionally, threat actors need a supportive infrastructure to launch attacks, connect with victim machines, and run their operations. These tasks can be broken down into several roles, including:
Having all these skills available costs money and makes work harder for cybercriminals–or in other words, it decreases the ROI (Return on Investment) of cyber attacks. With the advancement of Artificial Intelligence, AI chatbots like ChatGPT may be used to speed up coding, including malicious software. This could make cyber attacks cheaper and faster for threat actors.
Test: Malware Development with AI
As explained, malware development is the lengthiest and costliest part of any cyber attack campaign. AI may be able to address both challenges. So, we explored what current AI capabilities can do in terms of malware development and if cybercriminals could use them to their advantage. We used a chatbot called ChatGPT in our experiment. ChatGPT was developed by OpenAI and trained using reinforced learning from human feedback. It’s supposed to recognize inappropriate requests and reject them, but there’s always a creative way to request something illegal in a “legal” way. This is what we did to get our experimental ransomware that could be hypothetically used in a cyber attack:
1. Define attack objectives
First, we thought of “what should be the capabilities of our ransomware.” We decided it should be able to do the following:
Archive interesting files on drives and exfiltrate them to an external server, and
Perform encryption of all drives using a defined key
Essentially, these are the two core functionalities our experimental ransomware would do on a potential victim machine.
2. Ask AI to generate basic code
Then, all we needed to do was to ask ChatGPT to provide us with a Python code that executes these two tasks.
3. Lateral movement
OK, we got the baseline done. Let`s add some additional capabilities to our experimental ransomware, such as reconnaissance and lateral movement.
First, we prompted ChatGPT to generate a command using Nmap to scan for SMB vulnerabilities in a (target) environment.
This capability would discover systems that use vulnerable SMB protocol – a potential entry point for lateral movement.
Then we prompted ChatGPT to generate a process for connecting to hidden ADMIN$ share on a remote system via SMB. We instructed it to use Metasploit’s PsExec Module.
With this, our experimental ransomware gains the capability to connect to the remote system via SMB and execute the payload, which in this case is a meterpreter reverse TCP shell. Essentially, this would give an attacker a shell on the target machine with the privileges of the specified user.
4. Add-on: Steal passwords
For the final part of the experiment, we tried to create an infostealer malware. This functionality would enable password theft. Thus we prompted ChatGPT to generate a Python code that would connect to an SQLite database (where Chrome stores saved passwords) and perform a SELECT command on defined columns where the credentials are stored and save them to a file.
It is easy to replace the placeholder ‘database.db’ with the folder path of the database where Chrome stores the saved passwords on the machine.
Understanding the results
Our current testing shows that ChatGPT is a capable assistant for generating code. However, it is important to consider how crafty adversaries can be in making requests to evade the detection of inappropriate requests. We have demonstrated requests for common steps in a cyber-attack chain, and ChatGPT has delivered impressive results within seconds. While it may be possible to use the AI to develop exploits, it would require a creative and well-crafted request, likely made up of multiple individual requests, to trick the AI into thinking the request is not for inappropriate purposes.
It is important to note that these are basic examples of what ChatGPT can do. By exploring different requests, you may discover its true potential. Our goal was to explore some of the basic capabilities of the current AI and how it could potentially aid threat actors in their campaigns.
Imagine the capabilities of such AI when threat actors are actively exploiting an environment. Instead of having to remember multiple steps for reconnaissance, lateral movement, data gathering, and backdoor implementation, you can ask AI to generate them for you. This can be a time-consuming and stressful task for threat actors, especially when they need to adapt to specific environments. AI can aid them with this challenging work while they simply give it instructions.
It is a constant battle between attackers and defenders during a cyber-attack. The sooner attackers can perform their steps, the faster they can reach their objectives before defenders spot them. With adequate research on applications and vulnerabilities, it is possible to craft requests that eventually generate exploit code for potential zero-day vulnerabilities. It will be interesting to see if there is an increase in discovered vulnerabilities in 2023 due to AI’s impact.
On the other hand, less experienced threat actors who lack software development skills may find that they only need to understand how cyber-attacks work, as AI can generate code for them to use.
Overall, we believe that the current state of ChatGPT could be used to reduce the time needed to develop certain chunks of code. It may not be straightforward to use it to generate exploits, but it does a respectable job with simpler malware such as infostealers. As more people become familiar with using AI, its capabilities will improve and expand. The OpenAI team is also working on improving the detection capabilities of inappropriate requests, using filters and controls, which is nice, but from our understanding, this sounds like a ‘blacklist’ approach. Within the cybersecurity industry, we know that a blacklist approach is not efficient (e.g., adding suspicious file hashes on a blacklist of an endpoint security product), because it will be impossible to gather all the malicious indicators and insert them to such list. Instead, what we do is try to approach the problem with a whitelist solution, where we define what is ‘OK’ (e.g., we only let endpoint security product to execute a predefined list of applications). That is why we believe that ChatGPT model should be taught to recognize the good during its training period.
The big picture: AI`s impact on cyber risks for the business
The current state of AI chatbots has allowed for faster code development, including malicious code. This can give threat actors an advantage in their campaigns by speeding up their efforts and reducing the cost of creating simpler malware. In cybersecurity, speed is crucial in detecting and limiting the damage of cyber attacks.
If an organization does not have active monitoring in place, security products may fall behind rapidly changing malware with AI aid, leaving the organization vulnerable to attacks. To combat this, it is important to implement security hardening measures to reduce the attack surface and make it more difficult for adversaries to succeed in their intent. Even with active monitoring in place, it can still be challenging to catch adversaries before they are successful.
Disclaimer: The tests covered in this article have been performed for research purposes only and to provide you with insight into how AI technologies could potentially be used by cybercriminals. The examples are informative and not comprehensive enough to be used in actual attacks. Moreover, we have tested the specific tool due to its popularity. We do not imply that the tested solution (ChatGPT) is linked with and do not endorse any criminal activity in any way.